He's much worse", "A Pa. senator gets a political boost from pushing Trump's false election claims with 2022 in sight", "Handicapping Pa.'s 2022 gubernatorial race: As year comes to a close, plenty of contenders", "Sen. Mastriano: I'm trying to prevent Gov. [80][81], In the wake of the events, the editorial board of the York Dispatch, the local newspaper for much of his state senate district, wrote an editorial on December 2 that strongly criticized Mastriano's actions relating to the election. Doug Mastriano is testing whether the base of support that prevailed for him in a fractured primary can win in November By Isaac Arnsdorf August 28, 2022 at 10:04 a.m. EDT He then attended Mercer County Community College, where he was a member of Psi Beta and Phi Theta Kappa. The proposed resolution, as circulated in a memorandum seeking additional co-sponsorships, alleges that "officials in the Executive and Judicial Branches of the Commonwealth infringed upon the General Assembly's authority by unlawfully changing the rules governing the November 3, 2020 election in the Commonwealth", and declares, "based on the facts and evidence presented and our own Board of Elections data, that the Presidential election held on November 3, 2020, in Pennsylvania is irredeemably corrupted". [78] All participants of the meeting had been administered a rapid test for the virus as part of the White House health protocol, but the results of the test were not provided to them until they were already in the meeting in the West Wing. His campaigns Facebook post engagements have been comparable to those of Mr. Shapiro, despite Mr. Shapiros spending far more on digital advertising. [118] Mastriano emerged as an early frontrunner in the race, alongside former Congressman Lou Barletta. That whole movement is rock-solid behind him, said Sam Faddis, the leader of UnitePA, a self-described Patriot group based in Susquehanna County, Pa. Sign | Ron Desantis for President 2024 Corrugated Lawn Sign with Metal Stake, QPS Here for The Sex Gender Reveal Sign with Stakes - Boy or Girl Gender Reveal, Sign - Sex Gender Reveal Decorations - 16" Tall Weatherproof, Sign with Metal Wire H-Stake Stand and Bumper Sticker Included - Made in America! 0:54. Charlie Gerow, a veteran Pennsylvania Republican operative and candidate for governor who lost to Mr. Mastriano in May, said this loyal following was Mr. Mastrianos greatest strength. Shop products from small business brands sold in Amazons store. Shapiro led Mastriano by about . [166] The New York Times described Mastriano's general election efforts as a "ragtag campaign" that had "no television ads on the air [after] May, [chose] not to interact with the state's news media in ways that would push his agenda, and trail[ed] by double digits in reputable public polling"[167] Matt Brouillette, a Pennsylvania Republican strategist, said of Mastriano's campaign, "I've not seen anything that is even a semblance of a campaign. [116] He has said that God and former President Donald Trump wanted him to run for governor. Yes, you are elitist. Doug Mastriano is a retired member of the United States Army. In October 2021, Mastriano said he was considering a run for governor, but was putting out a fleece, and waiting for a sign from God before he could officially announce. I think its going to be important for him to run a more traditional campaign, dealing with the regular media even when its unpalatable and unfriendly, Mr. Gerow said. York's war exploits", "Author Douglas V. Mastriano Wins Crader Book Prize", "In French woods, rivals take aim at senator's WWI research", "Publisher to reissue Pa. Sen. Doug Mastriano's WWI book with corrections", "Sergeant Alvin York: Personal Accounts That Reveal His True Story", Project 1721: A U.S. Army War College Assessment On Russian Strategy In Eastern Europe And Recommendations On How To Leverage Landpower To Maintain The Peace, Project 1704: A U.S. Army War College Analysis of Russian Strategy in Eastern Europe, an Appropriate U.S. Torba added, "My policy is not to conduct interviews with reporters who aren't Christian or with outlets who aren't Christian and Doug has a very similar media strategy where he does not do interviews with these people. The ad was labeled as promoting Mastriano, a candidate Democrats saw as being easier to defeat in the general election. Again, thanks for visiting. It was the first Stop the Steal rally in Harrisburg. Campaign signs at a Pittsburgh rally. He is now the G.O.P. [21] The man at the rally, who presented the Jewish symbols, was identified as "Pastor Don" and is a messianic Jew. ", "Trump endorses Doug Mastriano for governor of Pennsylvania", "Here are the key primary election results from Pennsylvania", "Democrats' Risky Bet: Aid G.O.P. [199] The University Press of Kentucky, which published the book, asked Mastriano in September to respond before November 2021 to about 30 items of concern; his response or the publisher's own recommendations were then to be reviewed by the publisher and a peer reviewer for inclusion in a new printing in 2022. [78] It was also reported that Mastriano had not worn a mask during the Gettysburg public meeting that day, which had lasted more than four hours, and all but a few of the other participants had also not been wearing masks at the meeting. [76] The meeting, which lasted more than four hours, was organized by Mastriano (although Mastriano was not a member of the Policy Committee)[77] and was chaired by Pennsylvania State Senator Dave Argall. [170] Tapper said: "I don't think I have ever heard Mr. Mastriano describe any other Pennsylvania parochial school in that way. [34], During his run for Congress, Mastriano made multiple controversial statements including stating that same-sex marriage and adoption by same-sex couples should "[a]bsolutely not" be legal. [212] Josiah played the role of the Nazi Fritz and Mastriano played the role of American Captain Peter Ortiz. Governor Carrie Lewis DelRosso is a proven fighter who took on an entrenched liberal on his home turf and won. He stuck with his people.. nominee in perhaps the most closely watched race for governor in the country, in part because it would place a 2020 election denier in control of a major battleground states election system. "[168] In August, Mastriano was placed on their list of "right-wing extremists" seeking elected office and once again condemned by the ADL after spreading debunked, antisemitic, conspiracy theories that George Soros, a liberal businessman, was a Nazi. [25] The complaint cited 213 allegations of potential academic misconduct contained in Mastriano's doctoral thesis. "[193], Following the controversy, Media Matters for America published a Facebook livestream from Mastriano in 2020 where he praised armed men, who were ostensibly defending a statue of Confederate General Robert E. Lee in Gettysburg National Park. It is the best-executed and most radical ghost the media strategy in this cycle, said Michael Caputo, a former Trump campaign adviser, who said other Republican strategists were watching Mr. Mastrianos example closely. [170] A number of figures, including Jake Tapper, a CNN journalist and fellow alumnus of Shapiro's school,[171] condemned the remarks as antisemitic. Mastriano is a prominent figure in fundamentalist Christian nationalism and has called the separation of church and state a myth. [51][52] No permit was issued and although the protest did not materialize, "hundreds" of individuals showed up to counter the fictitious protest, many in tactical gear, heavily armed, and brandishing Confederate flags. [16][17] Raised in Hightstown, New Jersey, he graduated from Hightstown High School in 1982. [55][56], Mastriano spoke during an anti-lockdown protest held on April 20, 2020, in support of reopening Pennsylvania during the state's ongoing pandemic. In 2022, he won the Republican nomination for governor and lost to Democrat Josh Shapiro in the general election. candidate for governor of Pennsylvania deftly used Facebook to build a loyal right-wing fan base at the height of the pandemic. Relating to streamlining the licensing process for a commercial driver's license by allowing the department to waive requirements for applicants that previously surrendered the license, allowing the license to be renewed online, and modifying the license test fees. [36], On January 22, 2019, Mastriano announced that he intended to run for the State Senate seat being vacated by Rich Alloway in the 33rd District, saying he "can't, in good conscience, stand aside", wanting to "serve his country in a new way". He has said he supports busing them to Wilmington, Delaware, the hometown of President Joe Biden. ", "Doug Mastriano, Republican for State Senate", "Doug Mastriano says it's "disgusting" to discourage conversion therapy for LGBTQIA+ kids", "Mastriano Announces Bill Prohibiting Pediatric Gender Transition Surgeries", "The final days of Doug Mastriano's shoestring campaign: Is his 'army' of fans enough? [130] Mastriano has referred to the practice as a "barbaric holocaust" and said that the slogan "my body, my choice" is "ridiculous nonsense. "[169], Mastriano faced accusations of antisemitism in September 2022 following comments he made regarding Shapiro, who is Jewish. Mr. Mastriano was eventually removed from the chairmanship of a State Senate committee overseeing an investigation he had championed into the states election results, and he was later expelled from the Senates Republican caucus episodes that burnished his credentials with supporters suspicious of the state's G.O.P. [195], Mastriano's book received the 2015 William E. Colby Award of the William E. Colby Military Writers' Symposium at Norwich University (an award for a first published work of a military topic author),[29] the Army Historical Foundation Award, the US Army War College Madigan Award and the 2015 Crader Family Book Prize in American Values. (His campaign did not respond to requests for comment for this article.). [193], After the report was published, the photo was removed from the Army War College's collection of portraits "because it does not meet AWC values"; a spokesperson for the Army noted that "the Army supports commanders who remove symbols or images that do not comport with Army values. As Mastriano's book on York was heavily based on his Ph.D. thesis, this eventually prompted the University of New Brunswick to launch an investigation into his Ph.D. Phone: 717-334-4169 Gab has been described as a social media haven for white supremacists and neo-Nazis and was used by the perpetrator of the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting. [164] Mastriano has said that he is not antisemitic because his campaign has had Jewish symbols, including the tallit and shofar, at one of their rallies. Democrat Josh Shapiro defeated Republican Doug Mastriano for Pennsylvania governor. [149], Mastriano has said that same-sex marriage should be illegal, and that same-sex parents should not be allowed to adopt children. He has described the procedures as "experimental medical procedures" that distort "the concept of gender so that it defies the bounds of science and logic. In April 2022, Mastriano said that his Secretary of State would "reset" voter rolls so that Pennsylvanians would have to re-register to vote. [21], Mastriano's campaign had largely avoided talking to media outlets and journalists,[117] instead choosing to directly reach supporters via Facebook and speaking to a few conservative outlets. Doug Mastriano Seems To Be Paying It For Followers", "A Jewish Republican group is denouncing Doug Mastriano's links to an extremist social-media site", "GOP candidate for Pa. governor Mastriano paid $5,000 to the website used by the Tree of Life shooter", "Pittsburgh Jewish, Black leaders call out Doug Mastriano for ties to Gab social platform", "Jews, non-Christians not part of conservative movement - GOP candidate consultant", "Doug Mastriano's Gab page removed, candidate responds to criticism of social media platform", "Mastriano fights back against antisemitism accusations, citing use of shofar", "Democrat Josh Shapiro defeats Republican Doug Mastriano in Pennsylvania governor's race", "Mastriano's Sputtering Campaign: No TV Ads, Tiny Crowds, Little Money", "Josh Shapiro's new ads cite Doug Mastriano's ties to antisemitic content on Gab", "DPa. [183] The crowd shouted "as one" as they lowered their hands. Somebody should be able to retrace what he did. [21] He would repeal Pennsylvania's no-excuse mail voting law, which he previously voted for. He helped us through a bad time, she said. Streamed live @ PASenateGOP.com", "Trump Cancels Trip To PA GOP Election Meeting: Reports", "Source: Pa. lawmaker gets a positive test at Trump meeting", "President Trump invited Pa. lawmakers to the White House. [83] The Beaver County Times echoed this view on December 9, saying Mastriano had "shot to the top of the list for the GOP", and quoting local Democratic strategist Mike Mikus as saying Mastriano seemed to be "aggressively angling" to position himself as a potential candidate. His submissions included receipts for $3,354 for the buses he rented to take his supporters to the January rally that segued into a violent insurrection. Roe's fall has heightened existing fragmentation among states when it comes to abortion access, with some states doubling down on restrictions and others reinforcing protections. [181] Green, who says she has "a special relationship" with Mastriano and gave the opening prayer at one of Mastriano's campaign events, has promoted conspiracy theories including that Nancy Pelosi "loves to drink the little children's blood" and that Joe Biden is actually dead and being played by an actor. He does not give press access to these people. [27], After college, Mastriano was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the United States Army and assigned to the Military Intelligence Corps. ", "Doug Mastriano's Pa. victory could give 2020 denier oversight of 2024", "Doug Mastriano is deleting his videos from Facebook as he runs for Pa. governor", "Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming", "Scientists Reach 100% Consensus on Anthropogenic Global Warming", "Greater than 99% consensus on human caused climate change in the peer-reviewed scientific literature", "Consensus revisited: quantifying scientific agreement on climate change and climate expertise among Earth scientists 10 years later", "Republican candidates on climate: 'fake science' to 'carbon is healthy', "Slashed funding, equity, parent choice: Pa. gov candidates have hugely different education plans", "Doug Mastriano bizarrely pledged to ban pole dancing from schools if he is elected governor of Pennsylvania", "Trump moves to general election mode with Pennsylvania rally", "Doug Mastriano: is the Trump-backed election denier too extreme to win? Shapiro and Mastriano's records are wildly different", "Josh Shapiro is the clear choice for Pennsylvania governor", "Josh Shapiro's campaign, in first ad of $16.9 million buy, declares Doug Mastriano's anti-abortion, anti-LGBTQ beliefs 'too risky for Pa.', "Mastriano leads rise in Christian nationalism among GOP candidates", "Doug Mastriano's comments on Islam and climate change resurface, the latest hit for his campaign", "U.S. finds no evidence flaws in Dominion voting machines were ever exploited", "Explainer: Can Pa. gubernatorial nominee Doug Mastriano make voters re-register? Donald Trump Talks With Eric About 'The Greatest Scam In The History Of Our Country', "Rudy Giuliani Tests Positive for COVID-19 After Attending a Number of Election Hearings Maskless", "Mastriano campaign spent thousands on buses ahead of D.C. insurrection", "West Virginia delegate records himself storming U.S. Capitol", "State Sen. Doug Mastriano tells supporters to stand down", 'I was a moderating force,' says controversial Pa. GOP Senator Doug Mastriano in interview, "Videos Contradict State Lawmaker's Claim He Left Capitol While It Was 'Still Peaceful', "Pa. Sen. Mastriano unlikely to face consequences over newly released Jan. 6 videos at the Capitol", "Trump-backed gubernatorial candidate was questioned by FBI after photos emerged of him on January 6", "Doug Mastriano 'apparently' called Mike Pence on the day of the insurrection", "Arizona GOP Election Audit Draws More Republican Politicians", "The Republican-majority Maricopa County board says the audit ordered by Senate leaders is a mismanaged 'spectacle', "Inside Arizona's election audit, GOP fraud fantasies live on", "Wake Technology Services audited a Pennsylvania election as part of the #StopTheSteal movement", "Trump Reportedly Thinks Audits Will Lead To Reinstatement Of Defeated GOP Senators", "Justice Department: Arizona Senate Audit, Recount May Violate Federal Law", "Long After Trump's Loss, a Push to Inspect Ballots Persists", "Who Is Sidney Powell? Doug Mastriano, the Republican who ran for governor in Pennsylvania, engaged almost entirely with conservative media outlets. [115], Mastriano had long been rumored to be considering a bid for Governor of Pennsylvania, particularly following his high-profile role in trying to change the results of the 2020 Presidential election. [124] Former GOP senator from Pennsylvania Pat Toomey claimed that Mastriano is to blame for his loss and those of the Republican senate and congressional candidates. [1][7][8][9][10][11] A self-professed close ally of former president Donald Trump, Mastriano received national attention for his efforts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election. After the presidential election was called for Mr. Biden on Nov. 7, 2020, Mr. Mastriano was greeted as a star at the first Stop the Steal rally at the capitol in Harrisburg that afternoon. The event will begin Tuesday, May 2, at 11 a.m. in the Capitol Media Center, Harrisburg. [31][non-primary source needed] He ended his military career as a faculty instructor in the Department of Military Strategy at the U.S. Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, during 20122017,[non-primary source needed][22] and retired in 2017 at the rank of colonel. The clearest sign of Mastriano's presumed dominance in the primary came Saturday when he earned a last-minute endorsement from former President Donald Trump. Mr. Mastrianos rise from obscure and inexperienced far-right politician to Republican standard-bearer in Pennsylvanias governors race was swift, stunning and powered by social media. [134], An Associated Press article discussing Mastriano's combination of religion and politics said that Mastriano "leads rise in Christian nationalism among GOP candidates" and the article asserted that "watchers of Christian nationalism" considered Mastriano's primary win to be "by far the highest-profile victory for the movement". A video he livestreamed from the first significant anti-lockdown rally on the steps of the State Capitol in Harrisburg in April 2020, armed with a selfie stick, eventually racked up more than 850,000 views. "[49], In 2021, Mastriano was banned from attending closed-door Republican state senate caucus meetings after he publicly shared information that was meant to be confidential. Display this yard sign to show your neighbors that you support patriot Doug Mastriano as our next Governor of Pennsylvania with this 24 x 36 yard sign. [77] The meeting participants were also not screened for symptoms of infection. Republicans may soon have to deal with candidates who lost critical races last year like Kari Lake in Arizona and Doug Mastriano in Pennsylvania jumping into Senate races this cycle. The journalists had previously been prevented from being admitted to the rally; they were allowed by the hotel to stay. [123] A Philadelphia Inquirer reporter said that there were printed-out photographs of him and other journalists at the check-in desk at a [211] The film has also been criticized by scholars for its distortions of the Holocaust, and for equating abortion and gun-control with Nazism. (Carolyn Kaster/AP) He said they "have been making up rules on the fly and unconstitutionally rewrote the law, which compromised our election". "He's . The first sign of this power, sources said, was when Mastriano submitted 28,000 signatures to qualify for the statewide ballot in Pennsylvania. An election denier who lost by 15 points last fall, Mastriano . The G.O.P. Extremists in Spring, Hoping to Beat Them in Fall", "Andrew Torba: Five Things to Know | ADL", "Gab Was Key To The Tree Of Life Shooting. A career Army officer until his retirement in 2017 and a hard-line social conservative, Mr. Mastriano won a special election for the State Senate in 2019 after campaigning on his opposition to what he described as the barbaric holocaust of legal abortion and his view that the United States is an inherently Christian nation whose Constitution is incompatible with other faiths. In November 2020, Doug Mastriano, a state senator, tried to pass a resolution in the GOP-controlled state legislature that would have overturned President Joe Biden's victory in Pennsylvania, instead installing a slate of fake electors who would've thrown the election for former President Donald Trump. Mastriano said during the abc27 gubernatorial primary debate that he believes life . He ran for U.S. Congress in Pennsylvania's 13th congressional district in 2018, where he finished fourth in the primary. But with recent polls showing Mr. Mastriano lagging between three and 10 points behind Mr. Shapiro, Mr. Gerow is among the strategists doubting his primary strategy will translate to a general electorate. "[136] Despite being commonly described as a Christian nationalist, Mastriano has rejected this label. [22], While a Major at Air University, Mastriano wrote a thesis titled "The Civilian Putsch of 2018: Debunking the Myth of a Civil-Military Leadership Rift. [citation needed], Val DiGiorgio, the chairman of the Republican Party of Pennsylvania, said "Doug Mastriano is the kind of conservative candidate that reflects the values of South Central Pennsylvania and will be a key asset in helping advance the Republican agenda in Harrisburg. Profanity-laced shouting matches took place between this group and cemetery visitors throughout the afternoon. At the time Franklin County's seat Chambersburg had one of the highest average daily growth rates of COVID-19 cases in the country. [140], Mastriano supports pulling Pennsylvania out of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, a market-based program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change. [43][45] He also made birtherist allusions regarding president Obama. [119] Three days before the election former President Donald Trump endorsed Mastriano. This won't be easy, but with your help we can free Pennsylvania, allowing us to prosper. Democratic colleagues called for his resignation, saying senators must be held to a higher standard than others. "[71] On November 6, Mastriano and two other state senators, Michele Brooks and Scott Hutchinson, issued a joint memo calling for a full recount "in any counties where state law was broken, regardless of the Department of State's instructions, as well as in any precinct where questionable actions were demonstrated. In July, the liberal watchdog group Media Matters noted that Mr. Mastriano, according to his campaign filings, had paid $5,000 to the far-right social media platform Gab, which gained notoriety in 2018 after the suspect charged in the shooting at the Tree of Life Synagogue in Pittsburgh, in which 11 people were killed, used the platform to detail his racist and antisemitic views and plans for the shooting. "[35][21][122][131][132] Mastriano has called the Supreme Court's decision in Roe v. Wade, "worse than the Holocaust. Mastriano was a vocal opponent of the implementation of municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4) programs as applied by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. [155] Mastriano won the Republican primary election with 44% of the vote. Gettysburg, PA 17325 Sign | Joe Biden Nursing Home Funny 18x12 Double-Sided Sign for Lawn and Garden. I can't think of a better cape. [168], In August 2022, Mastriano condemned the FBI search of Mar-a-Lago, the residence of former President Trump, as "an outrageous weaponization of America's tools of justice against political opponents of the current regime in Washington, DC." Shapiro's revenge: a massive bank account", "EXCLUSIVE Pennsylvania candidate Mastriano posed in Confederate uniform at Army War College", "In Facebook video, Doug Mastriano thanked pro-Confederate armed men for supposedly defending Gen. Lee statue", "Biographer of WWI hero Sergeant York named Winner of 2015 Colby Award", "Proof offered of Sgt. Doug Mastriano, the far-right Republican backed by Donald Trump, doesn't believe the former president lost in 2020. [21][117] On January 8, 2022, Mastriano announced his candidacy as a Republican candidate for governor. [104] The audit was ordered by the state's Republican senate majority, the rationale for which was generated by widely discredited conspiracy theories. DesignThatSign Conservative We Believe, 2nd Amendment, Police Protect us, god is Real, All Lives Matter 18"x22" US Flag, | All People are Equal, Love Wins, Black Lives Matter, Diversity is Celebrated & More, Sign Outdoor Lawn Decorations,Smile Pineapple. "[21] Inquirer reporter Andrew Seidman described his rallies as a "megachurch event". | Privacy Policy. They're merging into the same thing. HARRISBURG Doug Mastriano is the projected winner of Pennsylvania's Republican primary for governor, defeating a crowded field in a high-stakes race that will shape the state's future. During the protest, Mastriano said he and his wife left the rally area when it turned violent, which he called "unacceptable". Charlie Gerow, a veteran Pennsylvania Republican operative and candidate for governor who lost to Mr. Mastriano in May, said this loyal following was Mr. Mastriano's greatest strength. [39] Mastriano was sworn into the Pennsylvania Senate on June 10. Douglas Vincent Mastriano (born January 2, 1964) is an American far-right[1][2][3][4] politician and retired military officer who has served in the Pennsylvania Senate since 2019, representing the 33rd district. "[152], He supports legislation to ban gender transition surgeries for transgender children. He sent a lengthy letter to Boockvar saying that "Nothing is more crucial to Americans than confidence that our voices will be heard through voting," and "Pennsylvanians no longer feel secure in casting their vote. Mastriano is a state senator . An anti-vaccine and anti-mask rally in Harrisburg in August 2021. [151], Mastriano opposes efforts to ban or discourage conversion therapy, a pseudoscientific practice of attempting to change an individual's sexual orientation. He also might be Pennsylvania's next governor", "Doug Mastriano's far-right path to front-runner status upends Pa.'s GOP primary for governor", "Analysis: Candidates in Republican primaries are trying to dodge journalists", "Mastriano concedes to Shapiro, calls for election reform", "Doug Mastriano has been consistent about his abortion views for years", "Mastriano Said in 2019 That His Bill Would Treat Abortions as Murder", "Doug Mastriano doubles down on abortion restrictions during Pa. governor race - WHYY", "In 2019, Doug Mastriano said women who violated proposed abortion ban should be charged with murder", "Who is Doug Mastriano, the GOP nominee for governor in Pennsylvania? But he answered no questions and ended the session after only fifteen minutes, after several disputes were brought up by his lawyer, including Mastriano's request that he be allowed to record his deposition, something the committee denied. He assumed office on June 10, 2019. [101], Transcripts released by the January 6th Committee later showed that investigators were aware of Mastriano's attempt to contact Vice President Mike Pence on the day of the attack.[102]. Discover more about the small businesses partnering with Amazon and Amazons commitment to empowering them. He urged his supporters "to exercise their votes and throw the bums out Democrats in Washington and Harrisburg. [69] The legislation was criticized by the president of the Pittsburgh Federation of Teachers as "a dangerous, kind of scary proposal".[69]. ,10Pcs Tropical Pineapple for Beach/Patio/Garden/Festive Atmosphere. [181], An August 2022 investigation by LNP found that Mastriano's security detail was made up of non-professional, armed guards including the former regional leader of the Oath Keepers, a far-right extremist militia group. [124], During an Independence Day parade, supporters of Mastriano could be seen carrying a flag bearing the emblem of the Three Percenters. why rehabilitation is better than punishment for juveniles, john singer sargent exhibition 2022, st clair county, alabama recording fees,

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